千锋教育-做有情怀、有良心、有品质的IT职业教育机构

您现在的位置:首页 >> 学习资料 >> iPhone OS 平台:无尽的可能之三种应用程序样式

iPhone OS 平台:无尽的可能之三种应用程序样式

时间:2011-03-11 10:49:47 来源:uxguide.net 作者:千锋

三种应用程序样式
Three Application Styles

This document identifies three application styles, based on visual and behavioral characteristics, data model, and user experience. Before you read further, it’s important to emphasize that these varieties are named and described to help you clarify some of your design decisions, not to imply that there is a rigid classification scheme that all iPhone software must follow. Instead, these styles are described to help you see how different approaches can be suitable for different types of information and functionality.

这一段文档基于视觉,行为特征,数据模型以及用户体验定义了应用程序的三个样式。在你进一步阅读之前,需要强调的是:这些命名以及描述这些特征只是为了帮助你清楚地确认设计方案,但这不表示所有的 iPhone 软件必须严格的遵守这些分类计划,这很重要。相反,描述这些样式可以帮助你认清楚针对不同样式应用程序的信息与功能,他们的设计方案是多么的不同。

Note: Bear in mind that application style does not dictate implementation method. This document focuses on designing native iPhone applications, but the application styles explored here can be implemented in web or hybrid applications for iPhone OS–based devices.

注:请记住,应用程序的风格并不指示程序实现方法(implementation method)。这文档专注于设计天然的iPhone应用程序,而不是在这里探索是不是应用程序的风格可以再任意类型的软件上实现。

As you read about these three application styles, think about how the characteristics of each might enhance your proposed feature set and the overall user experience you plan to deliver in your iPhone application. To help you discover the combination of characteristics that best suit your application, keep the following questions in mind as you learn about different design styles for iPhone applications:

当你阅读这三个应用程序的样式时,仔细思考如何把每一个可能增强应用程序功能组和用户体验的特点传递给用户。为了帮你发现最适合你的应用程序的特性搭配,当你学习不同iPhone应用程序设计样式时,请将几个问题默念在心中:

  • What do you expect to be the user’s motivation for using the application?
    你期望用户是出于什么动机去使用你的应用程序?
  • What do you intend to be the user’s experience while using the application?
    你打算在使用应用程序的时候获得怎样的用户体验?
  • What is the goal or focus of your application?
    你的应用程序的目标或者说专注点在哪?
  • How does your application organize and display the information people care about? Is there a natural organization associated with the main task of the application?
    你的应用程序是怎样组织和显示那些人们关心的信息的?是否跟应用程序的主要任务有天然的关系?

目录

[显示]
  • 1 生产力应用程序 Productivity Applications
  • 2 实用应用程序 Utility Applications
  • 3 沉浸式应用程序 Immersive Applications
  • 4 译者注释

生产力应用程序
Productivity Applications

A productivity application enables tasks that are based on the organization and manipulation of detailed information. People use productivity applications to accomplish important tasks. Mail is a good example of a productivity application.

生产力应用程序可以完成那些对具体信息的组织与处理的任务。人们使用生产力应用程序是为了完成重要的任务。比如邮件是一个生产力应用程序的典型例子。

Seriousness of purpose does not mean that productivity applications should attempt to appear serious by providing a dry, uninspiring user experience, but it does mean that users appreciate a streamlined approach that does not hinder them. To this end, successful productivity applications keep the user experience focused on the task, so people can quickly find what they need, easily perform the necessary actions, complete the task, and move on to something else.

任务的严肃性并不意味着为了生产力应用程序应该试图表现得严肃, 而提供一个枯燥的且不讨好的用户体验,相反的是,它(任务的严肃性)意味这用户会欣赏一个流线型且使用起来没有阻碍的用户体验。为了达到这个目的,生产力应用程序应该专注于主任务的用户体验,以便人们能尽快找到他们所需求,容易地执行必要的动作,完成任务后再关注其他东西。

Productivity applications often organize user data hierarchically. In this way, people can find information by making progressively more specific choices until they arrive at the desired level of detail. iPhone OS provides table elements that make this process extremely efficient on iPhone OS devices (see “Table Views” for more information about these user interface elements). Figure 1-1 shows an example of this type of data organization.

生产力应用程序通常会对用户数据分层次的组织。这样,人们可以通过逐步从大概到具体的选项中来搜索信息,直到他们达到想要那种详细级别。 iPhone操作系统提供的表格元素,使这(搜索信息)一步骤在基于iPhone操作系统的设备上表现得极为高效(更多有关这些用户界面元素的信息,参见“表格视图”)。图1-1显示了一个这种数据结构形式的例子。

Figure 1-1  Productivity applications tend to organize information hierarchically
图1-1生产力应用程序倾向于通过层级划分来管理信息

ds_hierachicalmodel.jpg

Typically, the user interaction model in a productivity application consists of:

通常,在一个生产力应用程序中用户交互模式包括:

  • Organizing the list
    组织列表
  • Adding to and subtracting from the list
    增加至列表或从列表中移除
  • Drilling down through successive levels of detail until the desired level is reached, then performing tasks with the information on that level
    逐步让信息更加详细直到达到目标的详细级别,然后执行与该详细级别对应的任务。

Productivity applications tend to use multiple views, usually displaying one level of the hierarchy per view. The user interface tends to be simple, uncluttered, and composed of standard views and controls. Productivity applications do not tend to customize the interface much, because the focus is on the information and the task, and not as much on the environment or the experience.

生产力应用程序倾向于使用多个视图,通常会在每个视图显示一个级别的信息。用户界面倾向于简单而整洁,并且是由标准的视图和控件组成。生产力应用程序不太倾向于自定义界面,因为程序的专注点应该是信息和任务,而不是使用环境或操作体验。

Among all types of iPhone applications, a productivity application is the most likely to supply preferences, or settings, the user can specify in the Settings application. This is because productivity applications work with lots of information and, potentially, many ways to access and manage it. It’s important to emphasize, however, that the user should seldom need to change these settings, so the settings should not target simple configuration changes that could be handled in the main user interface.

在所有的 iPhone 应用程序中,生产力应用程序是最有可能在设置应用程序中提供具体的用户可操作的选项或者设置功能。这是因为生产力应用程序处理着大量的信息,因而也就有许多方法来访问和管理它们。需要强调的是,用户很少需要更改这些设置,所以,这里不应该包含那些简单的用户在主界面即可更改的基本配置。

实用应用程序
Utility Applications

A utility application performs a simple task that requires a minimum of user input. People open a utility application to see a quick summary of information or to perform a simple task on a limited number of objects. The Weather application (shown in Figure 1-2) is a good example of a utility application because it displays a narrowly focused amount of information in an easy-to-scan summary.

实用应用程序能够完成那些简单的,对用户的输入要求最低的任务。人们启动实用程序来快速查看概览信息,或者是对(屏幕中)有限的几个对象简单操作。天气应用程序(见图1-2)实用应用程序的典型例子,因为它严谨地聚焦并呈现了一个易于浏览的概览信息。

Figure 1-2  Weather is an example of a utility application
图1-2 实用应用程序举例:天气

ds_weatherfront.jpg

Utility applications are visually attractive, but in a way that enhances the information they display without overshadowing it. People use utility applications to check the status of something or to look something up, so they want to be able to spot the information they’re interested in quickly and easily. To facilitate this, a utility application’s user interface is uncluttered and provides simple, often standard, views and controls.

实用程序有吸引人的视觉效果,在某种程度上,这种效果加强了信息的呈现,而不是遮蔽呈现。人们使用实用程序来检查一些事情的状态或者查找一些东西,所以他们希望可以快速并且方便地定位他们感兴趣的东西。为了达到这一点,实用程序的用户界面整洁有序,提供简单的,往往是标准的视图和控件。

A utility application tends to organize information into a flattened list of items; users do not usually need to drill down through a hierarchy of information. Typically, each view in a utility application provides the same organization of data and depth of detail, but can be served by a different source. In this way, users can open a single utility application to see similar treatments of multiple subjects. Some utility applications indicate the number of open views; users can navigate through them sequentially, selecting one view after another. Figure 1-3 shows an example of this type of data organization.

实用程序往往把信息组织成一个扁平[1]的项目列表;用户往往不需要逐级深入信息层次。通常,实用程序的每一个视图都提供相同结构的数据和细节深度,但(这些数据)可以是不同的来源。这样,用户可以打开单独一个实用应用程序,看到对多个主题的相同处理。一些实用程序标明了打开视图的数目;用户可以通过这些数字一个接一个地导航到这些视图。图1-3展示了这种数据组织的一个例子。

Figure 1-3  Utility applications tend to present data in a flattened list
图1-3 实用程序往往在一个扁平的列表里呈现数据

ds_flatmodel.jpg

The user interaction model for a utility application is very simple: Users open the application to scan a summary of information and, optionally, change the configuration or source of that information. Utility applications may need to support frequent changes to configuration or information source, so they often provide a small set of such options on the back of the main view. Users tap the familiar Info button in the lower-right corner of the main view to see the back. After making adjustments, users tap the Done button to return to the front of the main view. In a utility application, the options on the back of the main view are part of the functioning of the application, not a group of preference-style settings users access once and then rarely, if ever, again. For this reason, utility applications should not supply application-specific settings in the Settings application. Figure 1-4 shows how the Weather application provides configuration options on the back of the main view.

实用应用程序的用户交互模型很简单:用户打开应用程序来浏览信息的概览,然后可以选择更改信息的设置或者来源。实用程序可能需要支持频繁修改设置或者信息来源,因此常常在主视图的后面提供这些设置操作的集合。用户点一下主视图右下角熟悉的信息按钮来查看后面(的设置视图)。修改完毕后,用户点一下完成按钮回到正面的主视图。在实用程序里,主视图后面的配置选项是应用程序的功能的一部分,不是一组用户访问过一次之后,就很少或者再也不访问的偏好类型的设置。由于这个原因,实用程序不应该把特定设置放在设置应用程序里。图1-4显示了天气应用程序在主视图的后面提供了配置选项。

Figure 1-4  Users can make adjustments on the back of Weather
图1-4 用户可以在天气应用程序后面调整设置

ds_weatherback.jpg

沉浸式应用程序
Immersive Applications

An immersive application offers a full-screen, visually rich environment that’s focused on the content and the user’s experience with that content. People often use immersive applications to have fun, whether playing a game, viewing media-rich content, or performing a simple task.

沉浸式应用程序提供全屏的,有丰富视觉效果的环境,专注于内容和用户对于内容的体验。人们常常用沉浸式应用程序来娱乐,不管是玩游戏,浏览富媒体内容,或者执行一个简单任务。

It’s easy to see how games fit this style of iPhone application, but you can also imagine how characteristics of immersive applications can enhance other types of tasks. Tasks that present a unique environment, don’t display large amounts of text-based information, and reward users for their attention are good candidates for the immersive approach. For example, an application that replicates the experience of using a bubble level works well in a graphics-rich, full-screen environment, even though it doesn’t fit the definition of a game. In such an application, as in a game, the user’s focus is on the visual content and the experience, not on the data behind the experience. Figure 1-5 shows an example of an immersive application that replicates an actual experience and enables a simple task.

显而易见,游戏很适合这种iPhone应用程序类型,但是,你还是能想象一下沉浸式应用程序的特点如何去增强其它类型的任务。那些提供独特的环境,不显示大量文本信息,鼓励用户专注的任务,是沉浸式应用程序的一个不错的选择。例如,有个应用程序复制了使用气泡水平仪的体验,它在图形丰富,全屏幕的环境下工作得很好,尽管它不符合游戏的定义。在这样的应用程序里,就像在游戏里一样,用户的注意力集中在视觉内容和体验,而不是其背后的数据。图1-5显示了一个沉浸式应用程序的例子,复制了真实生活体验,可以完成一个简单任务。

Figure 1-5  An immersive application doesn’t have to be a game
图1-5 沉浸式应用程序不一定要是一个游戏

bubble_level.jpg

Note: Although applications that launch in landscape orientation should launch so that the Home button is on the right, the Bubble Level application shown above in Figure 1-5 launches in the opposite orientation. This ensures that the physical buttons on the edge of the device don’t interfere with the measurement. See “Starting” for more launch guidelines.

注意:虽然横屏的应用程序应该以主屏幕按钮在右侧的方向启动,但是上图1-5所示的气泡水准仪应用程序恰恰在相反的方向启动。这是因为要确保设备边缘的物理按钮不干扰测量。更多启动准则见“开始”。

An immersive application tends to hide much of the device’s user interface, replacing it with a custom user interface that strengthens the user’s sense of entering the world of the application. Users expect seeking and discovery to be part of the experience of an immersive application, so the use of nonstandard controls is often appropriate.

沉浸式应用程序往往隐藏设备原有的界面,取而代之的是自定义的用户界面,因为增强了用户的融入应用程序的世界的感觉。用户希望沉浸式应用程序的体验的一部分是寻求和发现,所以使用非标准的控件显得更为合适。

Immersive applications may work with large amounts of data, but they do not usually organize and expose it so that users can view it sequentially or drill down through it. Instead, immersive applications present information in the context of the game-play, story, or experience. Also for this reason, immersive applications often present custom navigational methods that complement the environment, rather than the standard, data-driven methods used in utility or productivity applications.

沉浸式应用程序可能要处理大量的数据,但通常不组织和展示出来给用户顺序查看或逐级深入了解。相反,沉浸式应用程序在游戏,故事,或体验这几种情况下呈现信息。也是因为这个原因,沉浸式应用程序通常采用自定义的导航方法以配合环境,而不是使用像在实用应用程序和生产力应用程序中的标准的,数据驱动的方法。

The user interaction model for an immersive application is determined by the experience the application provides. Although it’s not likely that a game would need to offer application-specific settings in Settings, other types of immersive applications might. Immersive applications might also furnish configuration options on the back of the main view.

沉浸式应用程序的用户交互模型是由应用程序带来的体验决定的。虽然游戏不太可能需要在设置应用程序中里提供特定设置,但其他类型的沉浸式应用程序可能需要。沉浸式应用程序也可以在主视图后面提供配置选项。

课程咨询

免费咨询热线
400-811-9990
  • 北京天丰利校区(总部):北京市海淀区宝盛北里西区28号天丰利商城4层
    北京沙河校区:北京市昌平区沙阳路18号北京科技职业技术学院广场服务楼2层、南区服务楼2层
    咨询电话:400-186-9990 010-82790226-801
    面授课程:iOS培训、Android培训、HTML5培训、UI培训、PHP培训、JavaEE培训、好程序员
  • 深圳科技园校区:深圳市南山区科苑南路高新技术产业园R3-B栋5层
    深圳大学城校区:深圳市南山区留仙大道1201号大学城创客小镇16栋2楼、3楼
    深圳西部硅谷校区:深圳市宝安区宝安大道5010号西部硅谷B座A605-619
    咨询电话:0755-86681178/9-801
    面授课程:iOS培训、Android培训、HTML5培训、UI培训、PHP培训、JavaEE培训、好程序员
  • 上海学院地址:上海市宝山区同济支路199号智慧七立方3号楼2-4层
    咨询电话:400-627-7899 021-65025129-602
    面授课程:iOS课程培训、Android课程培训、HTML5课程培训、UI课程培训、好程序员
  • 郑州学院地址:郑州市金水区纬五路21号河南教育学院综合楼(经纬中学楼)6/7/8层
    咨询电话:0371-55911950 400-186-9990
    面授课程:iOS课程培训、Android课程培训、HTML5课程培训、UI课程培训
  • 广州学院地址:广州市天河区元岗路310号智汇park创意园E座5层
    咨询电话:020-22119207 400-186-9990
    面授课程:iOS课程培训、Android课程培训、HTML5课程培训
  • 大连学院地址:大连市甘井子区软件园路2号B8座二楼
    咨询电话:0411-39026086 400-186-9990
    面授课程:iOS课程培训、Android课程培训、HTML5课程培训
  • 武汉学院地址:武汉市东新区光谷大道77号金融港B26栋9楼
    咨询电话:027-59905902 027-59905908 027-59905909
    面授课程:iOS课程培训、Android课程培训、HTML5课程培训
  • 成都旅游学院校区:成都市一环路西二段17号四川旅游学院青羊校区内
    成都华立校区:成都一环路西二段17号华立大厦3楼
    咨询电话:028-83178771 028-61967740
    面授课程:iOS课程培训、Android课程培训、HTML5课程培训、UI课程培训
  • 西安南二环校区:西安市二环南路西段60号永安大厦4层
    西安科技园校区:西安市雁塔区高新六路52号立人科技园C座西区4层
    咨询电话:029-85260160 029-85261030 029-85260960
    面授课程:iOS课程培训、Android课程培训、HTML5课程培训
  • 杭州学院地址:浙江省杭州市江干区九堡旺田书画城A座4层
    咨询电话:0571-86893632 010-82790226-801
    面授课程:iOS课程培训、Android课程培训、HTML5课程培训
  • 青岛校区地址:青岛市市南区金坛路17号青岛职业技术学院南校区实训楼A4层
    咨询电话:0532-80910752/3 010-82790226-801
    面授课程:iOS课程培训、Android课程培训、HTML5课程培训、UI课程培训
  • 了解千锋动态
    关注千锋教育服务号

  • 扫码关注千锋互联
    身边的移动开发导师

关闭