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iPhone OS 平台:无尽的可能之三种应用程序样式

时间:2011-03-11 10:49:47 来源:uxguide.net 作者:千锋

Three Application Styles

This document identifies three application styles, based on visual and behavioral characteristics, data model, and user experience. Before you read further, it’s important to emphasize that these varieties are named and described to help you clarify some of your design decisions, not to imply that there is a rigid classification scheme that all iPhone software must follow. Instead, these styles are described to help you see how different approaches can be suitable for different types of information and functionality.

这一段文档基于视觉,行为特征,数据模型以及用户体验定义了应用程序的三个样式。在你进一步阅读之前,需要强调的是:这些命名以及描述这些特征只是为了帮助你清楚地确认设计方案,但这不表示所有的 iPhone 软件必须严格的遵守这些分类计划,这很重要。相反,描述这些样式可以帮助你认清楚针对不同样式应用程序的信息与功能,他们的设计方案是多么的不同。

Note: Bear in mind that application style does not dictate implementation method. This document focuses on designing native iPhone applications, but the application styles explored here can be implemented in web or hybrid applications for iPhone OS–based devices.

注:请记住,应用程序的风格并不指示程序实现方法(implementation method)。这文档专注于设计天然的iPhone应用程序,而不是在这里探索是不是应用程序的风格可以再任意类型的软件上实现。

As you read about these three application styles, think about how the characteristics of each might enhance your proposed feature set and the overall user experience you plan to deliver in your iPhone application. To help you discover the combination of characteristics that best suit your application, keep the following questions in mind as you learn about different design styles for iPhone applications:


  • What do you expect to be the user’s motivation for using the application?
  • What do you intend to be the user’s experience while using the application?
  • What is the goal or focus of your application?
  • How does your application organize and display the information people care about? Is there a natural organization associated with the main task of the application?


  • 1 生产力应用程序 Productivity Applications
  • 2 实用应用程序 Utility Applications
  • 3 沉浸式应用程序 Immersive Applications
  • 4 译者注释

Productivity Applications

A productivity application enables tasks that are based on the organization and manipulation of detailed information. People use productivity applications to accomplish important tasks. Mail is a good example of a productivity application.


Seriousness of purpose does not mean that productivity applications should attempt to appear serious by providing a dry, uninspiring user experience, but it does mean that users appreciate a streamlined approach that does not hinder them. To this end, successful productivity applications keep the user experience focused on the task, so people can quickly find what they need, easily perform the necessary actions, complete the task, and move on to something else.

任务的严肃性并不意味着为了生产力应用程序应该试图表现得严肃, 而提供一个枯燥的且不讨好的用户体验,相反的是,它(任务的严肃性)意味这用户会欣赏一个流线型且使用起来没有阻碍的用户体验。为了达到这个目的,生产力应用程序应该专注于主任务的用户体验,以便人们能尽快找到他们所需求,容易地执行必要的动作,完成任务后再关注其他东西。

Productivity applications often organize user data hierarchically. In this way, people can find information by making progressively more specific choices until they arrive at the desired level of detail. iPhone OS provides table elements that make this process extremely efficient on iPhone OS devices (see “Table Views” for more information about these user interface elements). Figure 1-1 shows an example of this type of data organization.

生产力应用程序通常会对用户数据分层次的组织。这样,人们可以通过逐步从大概到具体的选项中来搜索信息,直到他们达到想要那种详细级别。 iPhone操作系统提供的表格元素,使这(搜索信息)一步骤在基于iPhone操作系统的设备上表现得极为高效(更多有关这些用户界面元素的信息,参见“表格视图”)。图1-1显示了一个这种数据结构形式的例子。

Figure 1-1  Productivity applications tend to organize information hierarchically


Typically, the user interaction model in a productivity application consists of:


  • Organizing the list
  • Adding to and subtracting from the list
  • Drilling down through successive levels of detail until the desired level is reached, then performing tasks with the information on that level

Productivity applications tend to use multiple views, usually displaying one level of the hierarchy per view. The user interface tends to be simple, uncluttered, and composed of standard views and controls. Productivity applications do not tend to customize the interface much, because the focus is on the information and the task, and not as much on the environment or the experience.


Among all types of iPhone applications, a productivity application is the most likely to supply preferences, or settings, the user can specify in the Settings application. This is because productivity applications work with lots of information and, potentially, many ways to access and manage it. It’s important to emphasize, however, that the user should seldom need to change these settings, so the settings should not target simple configuration changes that could be handled in the main user interface.

在所有的 iPhone 应用程序中,生产力应用程序是最有可能在设置应用程序中提供具体的用户可操作的选项或者设置功能。这是因为生产力应用程序处理着大量的信息,因而也就有许多方法来访问和管理它们。需要强调的是,用户很少需要更改这些设置,所以,这里不应该包含那些简单的用户在主界面即可更改的基本配置。

Utility Applications

A utility application performs a simple task that requires a minimum of user input. People open a utility application to see a quick summary of information or to perform a simple task on a limited number of objects. The Weather application (shown in Figure 1-2) is a good example of a utility application because it displays a narrowly focused amount of information in an easy-to-scan summary.


Figure 1-2  Weather is an example of a utility application
图1-2 实用应用程序举例:天气


Utility applications are visually attractive, but in a way that enhances the information they display without overshadowing it. People use utility applications to check the status of something or to look something up, so they want to be able to spot the information they’re interested in quickly and easily. To facilitate this, a utility application’s user interface is uncluttered and provides simple, often standard, views and controls.


A utility application tends to organize information into a flattened list of items; users do not usually need to drill down through a hierarchy of information. Typically, each view in a utility application provides the same organization of data and depth of detail, but can be served by a different source. In this way, users can open a single utility application to see similar treatments of multiple subjects. Some utility applications indicate the number of open views; users can navigate through them sequentially, selecting one view after another. Figure 1-3 shows an example of this type of data organization.


Figure 1-3  Utility applications tend to present data in a flattened list
图1-3 实用程序往往在一个扁平的列表里呈现数据


The user interaction model for a utility application is very simple: Users open the application to scan a summary of information and, optionally, change the configuration or source of that information. Utility applications may need to support frequent changes to configuration or information source, so they often provide a small set of such options on the back of the main view. Users tap the familiar Info button in the lower-right corner of the main view to see the back. After making adjustments, users tap the Done button to return to the front of the main view. In a utility application, the options on the back of the main view are part of the functioning of the application, not a group of preference-style settings users access once and then rarely, if ever, again. For this reason, utility applications should not supply application-specific settings in the Settings application. Figure 1-4 shows how the Weather application provides configuration options on the back of the main view.


Figure 1-4  Users can make adjustments on the back of Weather
图1-4 用户可以在天气应用程序后面调整设置


Immersive Applications

An immersive application offers a full-screen, visually rich environment that’s focused on the content and the user’s experience with that content. People often use immersive applications to have fun, whether playing a game, viewing media-rich content, or performing a simple task.


It’s easy to see how games fit this style of iPhone application, but you can also imagine how characteristics of immersive applications can enhance other types of tasks. Tasks that present a unique environment, don’t display large amounts of text-based information, and reward users for their attention are good candidates for the immersive approach. For example, an application that replicates the experience of using a bubble level works well in a graphics-rich, full-screen environment, even though it doesn’t fit the definition of a game. In such an application, as in a game, the user’s focus is on the visual content and the experience, not on the data behind the experience. Figure 1-5 shows an example of an immersive application that replicates an actual experience and enables a simple task.


Figure 1-5  An immersive application doesn’t have to be a game
图1-5 沉浸式应用程序不一定要是一个游戏


Note: Although applications that launch in landscape orientation should launch so that the Home button is on the right, the Bubble Level application shown above in Figure 1-5 launches in the opposite orientation. This ensures that the physical buttons on the edge of the device don’t interfere with the measurement. See “Starting” for more launch guidelines.


An immersive application tends to hide much of the device’s user interface, replacing it with a custom user interface that strengthens the user’s sense of entering the world of the application. Users expect seeking and discovery to be part of the experience of an immersive application, so the use of nonstandard controls is often appropriate.


Immersive applications may work with large amounts of data, but they do not usually organize and expose it so that users can view it sequentially or drill down through it. Instead, immersive applications present information in the context of the game-play, story, or experience. Also for this reason, immersive applications often present custom navigational methods that complement the environment, rather than the standard, data-driven methods used in utility or productivity applications.


The user interaction model for an immersive application is determined by the experience the application provides. Although it’s not likely that a game would need to offer application-specific settings in Settings, other types of immersive applications might. Immersive applications might also furnish configuration options on the back of the main view.



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